Aegle marmelos

Latin Name : Aegle marmelos (Linn.), Correa. ex Roxb. 
English Name : Bael Tree
Sanskrit Names : Bilva, Shivaphala
Hindi Name : Bel

» History

It is called ‘Shivadurme’, the tree of Shiva, and is one of the sacred trees of the Hindus. Leaves are offered in prayers to Shiva and Parvathi since ancient times. It has its own place in indigenous systems of medicine. The fruit is the subject of several solar-phallic myths. Hindu physicians regard the unripe or half-ripe fruit as astringent, digestive and stomachic and prescribe it to treat diarrhea and dysentery. The thick sherbet of the ripe fruit has a reputation among Europeans as an agreeable laxative. It is also given for piles, and as a remedy for diarrhea. The root bark is used as a remedy in hypochondriasis, melancholia, and palpitation of the heart. Fresh leaf juice used as a laxative and febrifuge is used in asthmatic complaints and jaundice. The Chinese used the leaves and young fruits to adulterate Opium. In Bengal, it is used for dysentery. In Concar, small and unripe fruits are used for piles. The juice of bark is a remedy for the poverty of seminal fluid.

» Habitat
It is found in India, Burma, and Sri Lanka, often planted in the vicinity of Shiva temples. It grows wild all over the sub-Himalayan forests, central India, and its west coast and in dry hilly places ascending to 4,000 ft. high.

» Morphology Description (Habit)
It is a medium to large sized deciduous, glabrous and armed tree with axillary and 2.5 cm long spines. Leaves alternate, 3-5 foliate, leaflets are ovate to lanceolate, crenate, acuminate, membranous and petioled. Flowers in short axillary panicles, large and scented. Calyx pubescent and four-lobed. Petals 4, white and gland-dotted. Stamens many. Ovary ovoid, cells 10-20, ovules many, fruit globose, grey or yellowish, rind woody. Seeds many, oblong, compressed, embedded in reddish yellow colored sweet pulp.

» Principal Constituents
Aegelin, formerly identified as sterol but clarified as a neutral alkaloid, rutacine, y – sitosterol, aegelemine and aegeline were identified from the leaves1. Marmin, marmesin, umbelliferine, skimmianine were identified from the bark and roots2. A major constituent of the fruit is the mucilage and marmelosin (0.5%) a coumarin, in addition to the minor constituents like reducing sugar, essential oils, ascorbic acid and various minerals.

» Pharmacology
Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the leaves have a similar effect as digoxin in amplitude and contractions of the frog’s heart. Alcoholic extract of the roots and fruits showed hypoglycaemic activity in albino rats and fruit extract has antiviral activity against Ranikhet disease virus. Marmelosin has anthelmintic activity against ankylistomiasis3.

» Indications
The roots are astringent, bitter and febrifuge. They are useful in diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, stomachalgia, cardiopalmus, seminal weakness, vomiting, intermittent fever, and swellings. The leaves are useful as laxative, febrifuge, and expectorant, also in ophthalmia, deafness, inflammations, catarrh, diabetes and asthmatic complaints. The fruits are useful in diarrhea, dysentery, stomachalgia, and good for heart and brain.

» Product Range
Diarex (DiarCare), Lukol, Revitalizing Hair Oil, Diarex PFS, Diarex Vet, Bael, Chyavanaprasha.
*Note: Reference from different internet websites.

Whitania somnifera

Action on Human Body Anti-Carcinogenic
Reference
  • Water Extract of Ashwagandha Leaves Has Anticancer Activity: Identification of an Active Component and Its Mechanism of Action.PLoS One. 2013; 8(10): e77189.Renu Wadhwa, Rumani Singh, Ran Gao, Navjot Shah, Nashi Widodo, Tomoko Nakamoto, Yoshiyuki Ishida, Keiji Terao and Sunil C. Kaul.
  • Withania somnifera Suppresses Tumor Growth of Intracranial Allograft of Glioma Cells. Mol Neurobiol. 2016 Aug;53(6):4143-4158.Kataria H, Kumar S, Chaudhary H, Kaur G.
  • Immune modulation and apoptosis induction: Two sides of antitumoural activity of a standardised herbal formulation of Withania somnifera.Eur J Cancer. 2009 May;45(8):1494-509. Malik F, Kumar A, Bhushan S, Mondhe DM, Pal HC, Sharma R, Khajuria A, Singh S, Singh G, Saxena AK, Suri KA, Qazi GN, Singh J.

 

Action on Human Body Parkinson’s Disease
Reference
  • Standardized extract of Withania somnifera(Ashwagandha) markedly offsets rotenone-induced locomotor deficits, oxidative impairments and neurotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. Journal of Food Science and Technology-Mysore- 52(4) January 2013 .  Mallayya , M.J. and Muralidhara, M.

 

Action on Human Body Stress, sexual disorders, anxiety and depression
Reference

·         Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera Dunal. Linn.) in the management of psychogenic erectile dysfunction .  Ayu. 2011 Jul-Sep; 32(3): 322–328. Prasad Mamidi, P.  and  Thakar A

 

·          A Prospective, Randomized Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Safety and Efficacy of a High-Concentration Full-Spectrum Extract of Ashwagandha Root in Reducing Stress and Anxiety in Adults. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Jul-Sep; 34(3):  255–262. Chandrasekhar, K., Kapoor, J and Anishetty,  S.

Acromus calamus

Latin Name : Acorus calamus Linn. (Araceae)
English Name : Sweet Flag, Calamus, Sweet Root
Sanskrit Names : Vacha, Sadgrantha, Ugragandha, Vayambur
Hindi Name : Bach

» Habitat
It is found growing wild and is also cultivated throughout India, ascending to an altitude of 2,200m in the Himalayas.

» Morphology Description (Habit)

A.calamus is a semi-aquatic, perennial, aromatic herb with creeping rhizomes. The rhizome is horizontal, jointed, somewhat vertically compressed and spongy within. It is pale to dark brown in colour; the leaves are grass-like or sword shaped, long and slesnder; flowers are small, yellow-green and in a spadix.

» Principal Constituents
The important constituents of Indian calamus oil are asarone and its ß-isomer. The dried rhizomes constitute the drug Calamus of commerce. The rhizomes, roots and leaves yield a light brown to brownish yellow volatile oil known as Calamus oil.

» Indications
In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, the rhizomes are considered to possess anti-spasmodic, carminative and anthelmintic properties, and, are used for the treatment of a host of diseases such as epilepsy and other mental ailments, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, bronchial catarrh, intermittent fevers, glandular and abdominal tumours. They are also used to treat kidney and liver troubles, rheumatism and eczema.

*Note: Reference from different internet websites.

Action on Human Body Stress
Reference

·         Protective effect of Acorus calamus LINN on free radical scavengers and lipid peroxidation in discrete regions of the brain against noise stress exposed rat. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Dec;28(12):2327-30.  Manikandan S, Srikumar R, Jeya Parthasarathy N, Sheela Devi R..

 

Reference

Blumea lacera

Latin Name : Kakronda, Blumea
Sanskrit Names : Kukkuradru, Kukundara, Mridu chhada, Tamrachuda
Hindi Name : Jangli Muli, Kakronda
Other Names : Bhamurda, Burando, Kattumullangi, Narakkarandai, Advimulangi, Karupogaku, Kukurmuta, Kukursunga, Kolhar, Pilo Kapurio
Botanical Name : Blumea lacera
Family : Asteraceae (Sunflower family)

» History

Kakronda is an annual herb with a strong odor, distributed throughout the plains of north-west India, up to an altitude of 2,000 m. The stems of this hairy or glandular herb are erect, simple or branched, very leafy and 1-2 ft in height. The leaves are obovate or oblanceolate, 5-12 cm long, 2-6 cm wide, smaller toward the top, stalked, and toothed or (rarely) lobulated at the margins. The bright yellow flowering heads are about 8 mm across, borne on short axillary cymes, and collected in terminal, spike-like panicles. The involucre-bracts are narrow and hairy. The achenes are not ribbed, are somewhat 4-angled, and are smooth.

 

» Medicinal Uses

Blumea is described by Ayurveda experts as hot, pungent and bitter; antipyretic; good for bronchitis, diseases of the blood, fevers, thirst and burning sensations. The root kept in the mouth is said to cure disease of the mouth. In the Konkan region of India, the plant is used to drive away fleas and other insects. In Homoeopathic system, it is given in enuresis, neuralgia, headache and cold borne cough.

*Note: Reference from different internet websites.

Action on Human Body Physiological Disorders Such As Rheumatism And Hypertension.
Reference

 

Rubia cordifolia

Botanical Name: Rubia Cordifolia
Family Name: Rubiaceae
Common Names: Indian Madder, Madderwort, Lukelangafu, Lukera Batuzi
Part Used: Roots, Stem
Habitat: Throughout India in hilly districts.
Product Offered: Roots, Stems

» Uses

The roots are alterative, anodyne, antiphlogistic, antitussive, astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, styptic, tonic and vulnerary. They are used to lower the blood pressure. The roots are used internally in the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, internal and external haemorrhage, bronchitis, rheumatism, stones in the kidney, bladder and gall and dysentery.

The stems are used as they are considered to have a bitter taste and a cooling potency. They are used in the treatment of blood disorders and spreading fever of kidneys and intestines. A valuable red dye is obtained from the root and stems. Roots are made into a paste for application into ulcers, inflammations and skin troubles. A decoction of leaves and stem is used as a vermifuge.

» Habitat

It is found in India, Burma, and Sri Lanka, often planted in the vicinity of Shiva temples. It grows wild all over the sub-Himalayan forests, central India and its west coast and in dry hilly places ascending to 4,000 ft. high.

» Morphology Description (Habit)

It is a medium to large sized deciduous, glabrous and armed tree with axillary and 2.5 cm long spines. Leaves alternate, 3-5 foliate, leaflets are ovate to lanceolate, crenate, acuminate, membranous and petioled. Flowers in short axillary panicles, large and scented. Calyx pubescent and four-lobed. Petals 4, white and gland dotted. Stamens many. Ovary ovoid, cells 10-20, ovules many, fruit globose, grey or yellowish, rind woody. Seeds many, oblong, compressed, embedded in reddish yellow colored sweet pulp.

 

» Principal Constituents

Aegelin, formerly identified as sterol but clarified as a neutral alkaloid, rutacine, y – sitosterol, aegelemine and aegeline were identified from the leaves1. Marmin, marmesin, umbelliferine, skimmianine were identified from the bark and roots2. A major constituent of the fruit is the mucilage and marmelosin (0.5%) a coumarin, in addition to the minor constituents like reducing sugar, essential oils, ascorbic acid and various minerals.

» Pharmacology

Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the leaves have similar effect as digoxin in amplitude and contractions of the frog’s heart. Alcoholic extract of the roots and fruits showed hypoglycaemic activity in albino rats and fruit extract has antiviral activity against Ranikhet disease virus. Marmelosin has anthelmintic activity against ankylistomiasis3.

» Indications

The roots are astringent, bitter and febrifuge. They are useful in diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, stomachalgia, cardiopalmus, seminal weakness, vomiting, intermittent fever, and swellings. The leaves are useful as laxative, febrifuge and expectorant, also in ophthalmia, deafness, inflammations, catarrh, diabetes and asthmatic complaints. The fruits are useful in diarrhoea, dysentery, stomachalgia, and good for heart and brain.

» Product Range

Diarex (DiarCare), Lukol, Revitalizing Hair Oil, Diarex PFS, Diarex Vet, Bael, Chyavanaprasha.

*Note: Reference from different internet websites.

Action on Human Body Hypoglycemic Effects, Memory Impairment.
 Reference

 

 

Apis sps

Botanical Name: APIS SPS
Hindi Name: Shahad
Sanskrit Name: Madhu
English Name: Honey

Natural honey has been used by mankind since the past 2,500 years. The numerous health benefits of honey have made it an important aspect of traditional medicines such as Ayurveda. Inventors are also researching the benefits of honey in modern medicine.

» Health Benefits of Honey

The 3 key health benefits of honey are related to the fact that:
• Honey is nature’s energy booster
• Honey is a great immunity system builder
• Honey is a natural remedy for some ailments
Nature’s Energy Booster The benefits of honey go beyond its great taste. A great natural source of carbohydrates which provide strength and energy to our bodies, honey is known for its effectiveness in instantly boosting the performance, endurance and reduce muscle fatigue of athletes. Its natural fruit sugars play an important role in preventing fatigue during exercise. The glucose in honey is absorbed by the body quickly and gives an immediate energy boost, while the fructose is absorbed more slowly providing sustained energy. It is known that honey has also been found to keep levels of blood sugar fairly constant compared to other types of sugar.
Immunity System Builder Amongst the many health benefits of honey, what is most impressive to me – it can be a powerful immune system booster. Honey’s antioxidant and anti-bacterial properties can help improve digestive system and help you stay healthy and fight disease.
Health Benefits of Honey Health benefits of honey are awesomely a lot! Energise the body, boost immunity, promote healing of cuts and burns, remedy for sore throats, colds, hangover, sleeplessness, stomach upsets.
–› Honey has a healthy Glycemic Index (GI), meaning that its sugars can be gradually absorbed into the bloodstream to result in better digestion. We should try to avoid eating excessive high-glycemic foods which would prompt an elevated insulin release in our body as a result of the pancreas being stimulated to metabolize the sudden surge of glucose into the blood.
–› Honey contains natural minerals and vitamins which help the metabolizing of undesirable cholesterol and fatty acid on the organs and tissues into the system, hence preventing obesity and promoting better health for us.

» Properties Of Honey

Be pleasantly surprised by these amazing honey properties — antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hygroscopic which all make honey a popular food as well as a medicine.
Honey is Hygroscopic Honey has a hygroscopic nature, which means when exposed to air, it naturally absorbs moisture in from the air. In treating open wounds, honey is useful as it could help prevent scarring by keeping the skin moist, encourage the growth of new tissues.

Honey is Antibacterial Researchers began to document the healing properties of honey in the early part of the 20th century. This ceased with the development of antibiotics but recently the development of resistance to antibiotics has led to a resurgence of interest into the healing properties of honey. The effective antimicrobial agent in honey prohibits the growth of certain bacteria. It contains an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide which is believed to be the main reason for the antimicrobial activity of honey.
Honey is a Source of Antioxidants Honey contains natural antioxidant properties that can destroy biologically destructive chemical agents which have been linked to many diseases such as cancer. Not only could honey’s antioxidants help to eliminate free radicals in the body, they are also part of the nutrient supply for growth of new tissue.

» Other Benefits of Honey

Honey is far better than what most people perceive… Not only does this delectable liquid stimulate your taste buds and whet your appetite, but more and more researchers are turning up new evidence of honey’s medical benefits in all directions. The benefits of honey don’t just stop at satisfying the palate; honey also offers incredible antiseptic, antioxidant and cleansing properties for our
body and health, hot beauty and skin care tips for ladies, and amazing healing properties as a head-to-toe remedy, from eye conjunctivitis to athlete foot. Its powerful healing attributes have long been used thousands of years ago and known to promote healing for cuts, cure ailments and diseases, and correct health disorders for generations after generations.

 

» Honey Vs Sugar

Both sweeteners contain glucose and fructose. However, for sugar, in the process of manufacturing, the organic acids, protein, nitrogen elements, enzymes and vitamins in the sugar cane are destroyed, whereas honey, a natural sweetener, subjects only to minimal heating. Also, honey has certain beneficial antioxidant and antimicrobial properties which are not present in table sugar. Here are three honey nutrition facts that will make you feel good about eating honey:
One One tablespoon of table sugar or sucrose contains 46 calories, while one tablespoon of natural sweetener honey has 64 calories. Though honey may have more calories, we actually need to use less of it since it is sweeter than table sugar. As a result, you may in fact consume even less amount of calories that you would with sugar. And in the long run even though honey is more expensive, it may be more economical than table sugar. I was taken aback when I first found out how much table sugar I was consuming when I take a can of coke — 10 teaspoons, and a 50g chocolate bar — 7 teaspoons!

Two Table sugar is sucrose, which is made up of two molecules bonded together. When we eat table sugar, our stomach has to use its own enzymes to separate the molecules apart before we can use the sugar’s energy. Honey is quite different. The bees have added a special enzyme to the nectar that divides the sucrose into glucose and fructose — two simple sugars for our bodies can absorb directly.

Hence, compared to table sugar, honey has a healthier Glycemic Index (GI) which measures the negative impact of a given food on the blood-glucose level. The lower the GI rating, the slower the absorption and infusion of sugars into the bloodstream and hence a more gradual and healthier digestion process.

Three Unlike honey, table sugar lacks minerals and vitamins (hence it’s been often called empty calories), they draw upon the body’s nutrients to be metabolized into the system. When these nutrients are all used up, metabolizing of undesirable cholesterol and fatty acid is impeded, contributing to higher cholesterol and promoting obesity due to higher fatty acid on the organs and tissues. That is why it is not uncommon for fat people to suffer from malnutrition and many other health related problems. So the message is, honey vs sugar, if you are watching your weight, honey will be a smarter choice than sugar. Besides the differences in nutrition, I feel sugar can never compete with honey in taste. Though both are sweet, honey has such a unique flavour that can be very useful and superior in many foods and beverages. The range of honey floral varieties is so vast that experiencing for yourself the uniqueness of each variety and being able to appropriate each variety to exploit every possibility to complement and improve taste of different types of foods becomes a skillful art.
*Note: Reference from different internet websites.

 

Cucumis melo

Symbol : CUME
Group : Dicot
Family : Cucurbitaceae
Duration : Annual
Growth Habit : Vine Forb/Herb

Rumex vesicarius

Action on Human Body Analgesic, Antipyretic, Astringent, Diuretic, Laxative, Stomachic
 Reference

 

Action on Human Body Antioxidant
 

 

Symplocos racemosa Roxb

Action on Human Body Effect On Serum FSH and LH level in immature females, Detachment of oocyte, obesity in females, Effect on all female disorders.
 Reference
  • Phenolic glycosides from Symplocos racemosa: natural inhibitors of phosphodiesterase     Phytochemistry. 2003 May;63(2):217-20    Ahmad VU, Abbasi MA, Hussain H, Akhtar MN, Farooq U, Fatima N, Choudhary MI.

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