The roots are alterative, anodyne, antiphlogistic, antitussive, astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, styptic, tonic and vulnerary. They are used to lower the blood pressure. The roots are used internally in the treatment of abnormal uterine bleeding, internal and external haemorrhage, bronchitis, rheumatism, stones in the kidney, bladder and gall and dysentery.
The stems are used as they are considered to have a bitter taste and a cooling potency. They are used in the treatment of blood disorders and spreading fever of kidneys and intestines. A valuable red dye is obtained from the root and stems. Roots are made into a paste for application into ulcers, inflammations and skin troubles. A decoction of leaves and stem is used as a vermifuge.
It is found in India, Burma, and Sri Lanka, often planted in the vicinity of Shiva temples. It grows wild all over the sub-Himalayan forests, central India and its west coast and in dry hilly places ascending to 4,000 ft. high.
» Morphology Description (Habit)
It is a medium to large sized deciduous, glabrous and armed tree with axillary and 2.5 cm long spines. Leaves alternate, 3-5 foliate, leaflets are ovate to lanceolate, crenate, acuminate, membranous and petioled. Flowers in short axillary panicles, large and scented. Calyx pubescent and four-lobed. Petals 4, white and gland dotted. Stamens many. Ovary ovoid, cells 10-20, ovules many, fruit globose, grey or yellowish, rind woody. Seeds many, oblong, compressed, embedded in reddish yellow colored sweet pulp.
» Principal Constituents
Aegelin, formerly identified as sterol but clarified as a neutral alkaloid, rutacine, y – sitosterol, aegelemine and aegeline were identified from the leaves1. Marmin, marmesin, umbelliferine, skimmianine were identified from the bark and roots2. A major constituent of the fruit is the mucilage and marmelosin (0.5%) a coumarin, in addition to the minor constituents like reducing sugar, essential oils, ascorbic acid and various minerals.
Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the leaves have similar effect as digoxin in amplitude and contractions of the frog’s heart. Alcoholic extract of the roots and fruits showed hypoglycaemic activity in albino rats and fruit extract has antiviral activity against Ranikhet disease virus. Marmelosin has anthelmintic activity against ankylistomiasis3.
The roots are astringent, bitter and febrifuge. They are useful in diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, stomachalgia, cardiopalmus, seminal weakness, vomiting, intermittent fever, and swellings. The leaves are useful as laxative, febrifuge and expectorant, also in ophthalmia, deafness, inflammations, catarrh, diabetes and asthmatic complaints. The fruits are useful in diarrhoea, dysentery, stomachalgia, and good for heart and brain.
» Product Range
Diarex (DiarCare), Lukol, Revitalizing Hair Oil, Diarex PFS, Diarex Vet, Bael, Chyavanaprasha.